Sep
17

Nutanix and EVO:RAIL\VSAN – Data Placement

Nutanix and VSAN\EVO:RAIL are different in many ways. One such way is how data is spread out through the cluster.

• VSAN is a distributed object file system
• VSAN metadata lives with the vm, each vm has it’s own witness
• Nutanix is a distributed file system
• Nutanix metadata is global

VSAN\EVO:RAIL will break up its objects (VMDK’s) into components. Those components get placed evenly among the cluster. I am not sure on the algorithm but it appears to be capacity based. Once the components are placed on a node they stay there until:

• They are deleted
• The 255 GB component (default size) fills up and another one is created
• The Node goes offline and a rebuild happens
• Maintenance mode is issued and someone selects the evacuate data option.

So in a fresh brand new cluster things are pretty evenly distributed.

VSAN

VSAN distributes data with the use of components

VSAN distributes data with the use of components

Nutanix uses data locality as the main principle in placement of all initial data. One copy is written locally, one copy remotely. As more writes occur the secondary copy of the data keeps getting spread evenly across the cluster. Reads stay local to the node. Nutanix uses extent and extent groups as the mechanism to coalesce the data (4 MB).

A new Nutanix cluster or one running for a long time, things are kept level and balanced based on a percentage of overall capacity. This method accounts for clusters with mixed nodes\needs. More here.

Nutanix

Nutanix

Nutanix places copies of data with the use of extent groups.

So you go to expand your cluster…

With VSAN after you add a node (compute, SSD, HDD) to a cluster and you vMotion workload over to the new node what happens? Essential nothing. The additional capacity would get added to the cluster but there is no additional performance benefit. The VM’s that are moved to the new node continue to hit the same resources across the cluster. The additional flash and HDD sit there idle.

VSAN

Impact of adding a new node with VSAN and moving virtual machines over.

Impact of adding a new node with VSAN and moving virtual machines over.

When you add a node to Nutanix and vMotion workloads over they start writing locally and get to benefit from the additional flash resources right away. Not only is this important from a performance perspective, it also keeps available data capacity level in the event of a failure.

Nutanix

Nutanix

Impact of adding a new node with Nutanix and moving virtual machines over.

Since data is spread evenly across the cluster in the event of hard drive failing all of the nodes in Nutanix can help with rebuilding the data. With VSAN only the nodes containing the components can help with the rebuild.

Note: Nutanix rebuilds cold data to cold data (HDD to HDD), VSAN rebuilds data into the SSD Cache. If you lose a SSD with VSAN all backing HDD need to be rebuilt. The data from HDD on VSAN will flood into the cluster SSD tier and will affect performance. This is one of the reasons I believe why 13 RAID controllers were pulled from the HCL. I do find it very interesting because one of the RAID controllers pulled is one that Nutanix uses today.

Nutanix will always write the minimum two copies of data in the cluster regardless of the state of the clusters. If it can’t the guest won’t get the acknowledgment. When VSAN has a host that is absent it will write only 1 copy if the other half of the components are on the absent host. At some point VSAN will know it has written too much with only 1 copy and start the component rebuild before the 60 minute timer. I don’t know the exact algorithm here either, it’s just what I have observed after shutting a host down. I think this is one of the reasons that VSAN recommends writing 3 copies of data.

[Update: VMware changed the KB article after this post. It was 3 copies of data and has been adjusted to 2 copies (FT > 0) Not sure what changed on their side. There is no explanation for the change in the KB.]

Data locality has an important role to play in performance, network congestion and in availability.

More on Nutanix – EVO

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